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iphone INFO

The iPhone is an Internet and multimedia enabled smartphone designed and marketed by Apple Inc.. The iPhone functions as a camera phone (also including text messaging and visual voicemail), a portable media player (equivalent to a video iPod), and an Internet client (with email, web browsing, and Wi-Fi connectivity) — using the phone's multi-touch screen to render a virtual keyboard in lieu of a physical keyboard.

The first-generation phone (known as the Original) was quad-band GSM with EDGE; the second generation phone (known as 3G) added UMTS with 3.6 Mbps HSDPA;the third generation adds support for 7.2 Mbps HSDPA downloading but remains limited to 384 Kbps uploading as Apple had not implemented the HSPA protocol.

Apple announced the iPhone on January 9, 2007,after months of rumors and speculation.The original iPhone was introduced in the United States on June 29, 2007 before being marketed worldwide. Time magazine named it the Invention of the Year in 2007.Released July 11, 2008, the iPhone 3G supports faster 3G data speeds and assisted GPS.On March 17, 2009, Apple announced version 3.0 of the iPhone OS operating system for the iPhone (and iPod Touch), released on June 17, 2009. The iPhone 3GS was announced on June 8, 2009, and has improved performance, a camera with more megapixels and video capability, and voice control.It was released in the U.S., Canada and 6 European countries on June 19, 2009, in Australia and Japan on June 26, and saw international release in July and August, 2009.


4G wireless Technology

4G wireless standards

3GPP is currently standardizing LTE Advanced as future 4G standard. A first set of 3GPP requirements on LTE Advanced has been approved in June 2008. The working groups are currently evaluating various proposals for standardization. LTE Advanced will be standardized as part of the Release 10 of the 3GPP specification.


Technology is a broad concept that deals with an animal species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects an animal species' ability to control and adapt to its environment.However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology".

The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.

Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.

Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.



Type Public

Founded 1958

Headquarters Seoul, South Korea

Key people Yong Nam, Vice Chairman & CEO

Industry Mobile Communication, Digital Display, Digital Appliance and Digital Media

Employees 82,772 (29,948 in Korea/ 52,824 overseas) - as of 2006

Parent LG Group

Website LG Electronics Worldwide

LG Electronics (LGE, Korean: LG전자) (KRX: 066570, LSE: LGLD) is the world's second-biggest maker of televisions [1] and third-biggest maker of mobile phones.

With its headquarters in the LG Twin Towers in Yeouido, Seoul, South Korea, LG Electronics is the flagship company of LG Group, one of the world's largest electronic conglomerates.

The company has 75 subsidiaries worldwide that design and manufacture televisions, home appliances, and telecommunications devices. LG Electronics owns Zenith Electronics and controls 37.9 percent of LG Display.

By 2005, LG was a Top 100 global brand, and in 2006, LG recorded a brand growth of 14%. Now the world's largest plasma panel manufacturer,[4] its affiliate, LG Display, is one of the largest manufacturers of liquid crystal displays. Also in 2006, the company's mobile phone division, LG Mobile, marketed the LG Chocolate phone, changing the company's image of the maker of thick 3G phones. It now focuses on the design and marketing of phones such as the LG Shine, the LG Glimmer and LG Prada (KE850). As a result, the company was picked as "The Design Team of the Year" by the red dot design award in 2006~2007 and is often called the "New Apple" in the industry and online communities.








Sources of innovation

There are several sources of innovation. In the linear model of innovation the traditionally recognized source is manufacturer innovation. This is where an agent (person or business) innovates in order to sell the innovation. Another source of innovation, only now becoming widely recognized, is end-user innovation. This is where an agent (person or company) develops an innovation for their own (personal or in-house) use because existing products do not meet their needs. Eric von Hippel has identified end-user innovation as, by far, the most important and critical in his classic book on the subject, Sources of Innovation.

Innovation by businesses is achieved in many ways, with much attention now given to formal research and development for "breakthrough innovations." But innovations may be developed by less formal on-the-job modifications of practice, through exchange and combination of professional experience and by many other routes. The more radical and revolutionary innovations tend to emerge from R&D, while more incremental innovations may emerge from practice – but there are many exceptions to each of these trends.

Regarding user innovation, a great deal of innovation is done by those actually implementing and using technologies and products as part of their normal activities. Sometimes user-innovators may become entrepreneurs, selling their product, they may choose to trade their innovation in exchange for other innovations, or they may be adopted by their suppliers. Nowadays, they may also choose to freely reveal their innovations, using methods like open source. In such networks of innovation the users or communities of users can further develop technologies and reinvent their social meaning.

Whether innovation is mainly supply-pushed (based on new technological possibilities) or demand-led (based on social needs and market requirements) has been a hotly debated topic. Similarly, what exactly drives innovation in organizations and economies remains an open question.

More recent theoretical work moves beyond this simple dualistic problem, and through empirical work shows that innovation does not just happen within the industrial supply-side, or as a result of the articulation of user demand, but through a complex set of processes that links many different players together – not only developers and users, but a wide variety of intermediary organisations such as consultancies, standards bodies etc. Work on social networks suggests that much of the most successful innovation occurs at the boundaries of organisations and industries where the problems and needs of users, and the potential of technologies can be linked together in a creative process that challenges both.




Screen 480 × 360 pixels

(Curve 8900/Tour 9630)

360 × 480 pixels (Storm)

480 × 320 pixels (Bold)

320 × 240 pixels (8300/8700/8800 Series)

240 × 260 pixels

(7100/8100 Series)

240 × 320 pixels (8200 Series)

65,000 colors

Default ringtone Polyphonic, MP3, MIDI

Memory 64 MB to 1 GB dependent upon model

Networks GSM850/900/1800/1900




Connectivity microSD, USB, Bluetooth, WiFi, GPS

Physical size 50 mm × 106.7 mm × 14.5 mm

Weight 87.9 g to 155 g dependent upon model

BlackBerry is a line of wireless handheld devices that was introduced in 1999 as a two-way pager. In 2002, the more commonly known smartphone BlackBerry was released, which supports push e-mail, mobile telephone, text messaging, internet faxing, web browsing and other wireless information services. It is an example of a convergent device. Developed by the Canadian company Research In Motion (RIM), it delivers information over the wireless data networks of mobile phone service companies. BlackBerry first made headway in the marketplace by concentrating on e-mail. RIM currently offers BlackBerry e-mail service to non-BlackBerry devices, such as the Palm Treo, through the BlackBerry Connect software. The original BlackBerry device had a monochrome display, but all current models have color displays.

While including PDA applications (address book, calendar, to-do lists, etc.) as well as telephone capabilities on newer models, the BlackBerry is primarily known for its ability to send and receive e-mail wherever it can access a wireless network of certain cellular phone carriers. Most current BlackBerry models have a built-in QWERTY keyboard, optimized for "thumbing", the use of only the thumbs to type, and there are also several models that include a standard cell phone keypad for typing, and one model that is a full touch-screen device with no physical keyboard. System navigation is primarily accomplished by a scroll ball, or "trackball" in the middle of the device (older devices used a track wheel on the side). Some models (currently, those manufactured for use with iDEN networks such as Nextel and Mike) also incorporate a Push-to-Talk (PTT) feature, similar to a two-way radio.

Modern GSM-based BlackBerry handhelds incorporate an ARM 7 or 9 processor, while older BlackBerry 950 and 957 handhelds used Intel 80386 processors. The latest GSM BlackBerry models (8100, 8300 and 8700 series) have an Intel PXA901 312 MHz processor, 64 MB flash memory and 16 MB SDRAM. CDMA BlackBerry smartphones are based on Qualcomm MSM6x00 chipsets which also include the ARM 9-based processor and GSM 900/1800 roaming (as the case with the 8830 and 9500) and include up to 256MB flash memory. The devices are very popular with some businesses, where they are primarily used to provide e-mail access to roaming employees. To fully integrate the BlackBerry into a company's systems, the installation of BlackBerry Enterprise Server (BES) is required, along with either Microsoft Exchange, Lotus Notes or Novell Groupwise email server applications.

On 30 May 2009, RIM announced the number of BlackBerry subscribers has reached approximately 28.5 million.



experimentation in innovation

experimentation in innovation

When an innovative idea requires a new business model, or radically redesigns the delivery of value to focus on the customer, a real world experimentation approach increases the chances of market success. New business models and customer experiences can't be tested through traditional market research methods. Pilot programs for new innovations set the path in stone too early thus increasing the costs of failure. On the other hand, the good news is that recent years have seen considerable progress in identifying important key factors/principles or variables that affect the probability of success in innovation. Of course, building successful businesses is such a complicated process, involving subtle interdependencies among so many variables in dynamic systems, that it is unlikely to ever be made perfectly predictable. But the more business can master the variables and experiment, the more they will be able to create new companies, products, processes and services that achieve what they hope to achieve.

An editor has expressed a concern that this article lends undue weight to certain ideas relative to the article as a whole. Please help to discuss and resolve the dispute before removing this message. (May 2009)

Stefan Thomke of Harvard Business School has written a definitiv book on the importance of experimentation. Experimentation Matters argues that every company's ability to innovate depends on a series of experiments [successful or not], that help create new products and services or improve old ones. That period between the earliest point in the design cycle and the final release should be filled with experimentation, failure, analysis, and yet another round of experimentation. "Lather, rinse, repeat," Thomke says. Unfortunately, uncertainty often causes the most able innovators to bypass the experimental stage.

In his book, Thomke outlines six principles companies can follow to unlock their innovative potential.

Anticipate and exploit early information through 'front-loaded' innovation processes

Experiment frequently but do not overload your organization

Integrate new and traditional technologies to unlock performance

Organize for rapid experimentation

Fail early and often but avoid 'mistakes'

Manage projects as experiments.

Thomke further explores what would happen if the principles outlined above were used beyond the confines of the individual organization. For instance, in the state of Rhode Island, innovators are collaboratively leveraging the state's compact geography, economic and demographic diversity and close-knit networks to quickly and cost-effectively test new business models through a real-world experimentation lab.

Samsung Telecommunication Business

Samsung Telecommunication Business

Type Business unit

Founded Seoul, South Korea (1977)

Headquarters Suwon, South Korea

Key people Geesung Choi, President

Industry Telecommunications

Products Mobile phones

Smart phones

Telecomunication Systems

MP3 Players

Laptop computers

Revenue 21 Billion USD (2007)

Net income $ 2.3 Billion USD (2007)

Parent Samsung Electronics

Website Samsung consumer

Samsung Telecommunications is one of five business units within Samsung Electronics, belonging to the Samsung Group, and consists of the Mobile Communications Division, Telecommunication Systems Division, Computer Division, MP3 Business Team, Mobile Solution Centre and Telecommunication R&D Centre. Telecommunication Business produces a full spectrum of products from mobiles and other mobile devices such as MP3 players and laptop computers to telecommunication network infrastructure. Headquarters is located in Suwon, South Korea.

In 2007 Samsung Telecommunication Business reported over 40% growth and became the second largest mobile device manufacturer in the world. Its market share was 14% in Q4 2007, growing up form 11.3% in Q4 2006. In Q1 2008 Samsung strengthened its second position on the market and achieved 15.6% world handset market share.

Nokia 6620 and Nokia 6620 Features and Nokia 6620 Technical specifications and Nokia 6620 Specifications

The 6620 is a smartphone created by Nokia, which uses the Series 60 user-interface and the Symbian operating system.
It is a version of Nokia's 6600 smartphone for the North American market, featuring all the features of the 6600 such as the VGA camera, MultiMediaCard slot, Bluetooth and color screen, but with a change to the North American GSM frequencies, the doubling of internal RAM, the addition of Nokia's new Pop-Port connector, the inclusion of stereo sound, and a new Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) capability, effectively giving it double the download speeds of current General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) equipped phones.
This phone is available from some US and Canadian cellphone operators and usually comes packaged with the charger, a battery, a 32 mebibyte MMC card and a USB cable. In Cingular's lineup, the Nokia 6620 was replaced by the Nokia 6682.
65000 color screen
VGA camera for pictures and video
GSM voice communication (850MHz, 1800MHz and 1900MHz)
GPRS and EDGE data communication
Bluetooth, infrared and USB connectivity
Support for SMS, MMS and email messages
Multiple mailbox for remote email downloads
Web browsing for WAP and HTTP web sites
12 megabytes internal memory
MMC expansion slot supporting up to 2 gigabytes
Handsfree speakerphone
Multiple ringtones included with space for more
Usual software including calendar, calculator, wallet, messaging, voice recorder, phone book, gallery, notes
Symbian and Java support for applications and games
Instant Messaging (IM) support
RealPlayer included for audio and video playback
Full MP3 support including saved Playlists
Stereo audio playback using Nokia stereo headphones or Nokia AD-15 3.5mm stereo headphone adapter (6600 was mono only)
Digital downloads
The EDGE capability allows the 6620 to play streaming video, allowing users to view video clips that are not stored on the phone itself. The phone also supports downloading smart messages from the network, depending on support from the network operator, to update settings. Note that to access the web or other download features, access points must be configured by the network operator.
Technical specifications
The main CPU in this phone is an ARM9 compatible chip running at 150MHz while the 6600 only runs at 104MHz. The camera supports resolutions up to 640x480 and has a 2x digital zoom. It can records video for up to 10 minutes. The RealPlayer software can play back video and audio, and also files in MP3 and AVI format. The talk time is listed at 4 hours, and 200 hours of standby.
Manufacturer Nokia
Carrier AT&T Wireless/Cingular
Screen 176 x 208 pixel 65,536 colors
Camera 0.3 Megapixels 640x480 VGA
Operating system Series 60/Symbian OS
Default ringtone 24 chord
Memory 12 MB
Memory card MMC (32 MB included)
Networks GSM 850/1800/1900 MHz
Connectivity IrDA Bluetooth
Battery BL-5C, 3.7v, 850mAh Li-ion
Physical size 109 x 58 x 23.6 mm
Weight 124 g
Form factor Candybar
Predecessor Nokia 3620
Successor Nokia 6682
Related Nokia 6600
Nokia 6630

Nokia 6301 and Nokia 6301 Major Features and Nokia 6301 Features and UMA and Music Capability and Photography and Videography

The Nokia 6301, approved by the FCC for the US market in January 2008, (RM-323 for the North America market, RM-322 for the European market) is a triband GSM unit.The North American model 6301b is equipped with 850/1800/1900 MHz bands. The European model 6301 is equipped with 900/1800/1900 MHz bands.

The 6301 is SMS, MMS 1.2 and instant message capable.It has a standard 12 button numeric keypad, a five way navigation key and four additional keys on its face. It has a side volume key and a top mounted dedicated power key.

The bulk of the area above the keypad is taken up with the 2.0" TFT display, 320 x 240 pixels with up to 16.7 Million colors. It is a small device weighing 3.27 oz and is 4.20 x 1.72 x 0.52 in. Power is provided by a BL-4C 860 mAh Li-ion unit providing up to 3.5 hours of use per charge.

Major Features


Unlicensed Mobile Access allows the mobile device to utilise a wireless router to make phone calls.The phone and router are recognized as being similar to a phone and GSM tower by the carrier's system. This allows for seamless handoffs between the router and the GSM tower at the point where the device is no longer in range of the router.


Wireless connection for data transfer to the service provider means downloading content such as ringtones, games and wallpapers proceeds at a much faster pace than EDGE or GPRS speeds.

Music Capability

An FM radio and multi-format music player are included in the build. Stereo output is accomplished through the 2.5 mm Nokia AV port at the bottom of the device or through the Bluetooth A2DP provision. Operation of the FM radio requires a wired device be attached to the AV port as it functions as the antenna for the radio. The music player supports Midi, AAC, AAC+, enhanced AAC+, MP3, and WMA files.There is an equalizer to allow for some adjustment of the tonal quality of the sound.

Photography and Videography

A 2.0 megepixel CMOS sensor is mated to a fixed focus lens without auxiliary lighting. Maximum resolution is 1600 x 1200. Digital zoom allows for in camera cropping prior to taking the shot. The still image camera has High, Normal and Basic quality settings. Image size choices are 160 x 120, 320 x 240, 640 480, 800 x 600, 1280 x 960 , 1600 x 1200. Available effects are Normal, False color, Grayscale, Sepia, Negative, and Solarize. White Balance choices are Auto, Daylight, Tungsten and Fluorescent.

Video is shot through the same lens as still images. Video resolution choices are 176 x 144 and 128 x 96 and appear to be 15 frames per second. Video clip length choices are Maximum and default. Default will produce a clip suitable for sending via MMS, or roughly less than 300 kB. Other menu choices for video mirror those for still images. Both still and video images may be saved either to the phone memory or to the storage card.

Nokia 6315i

The Nokia 6315i was a cell phone released in 2006 by Verizon Wireless for the United States market. Though branded as a Nokia model, the phone was manufactured by Pantech. The budget-priced 6315i featured Bluetooth, integrated video recording and speakerphone.

Nokia 6288 and Nokia 6288 Specifications

The Nokia 6288 is a 3G mobile phone made by Nokia. It is an updated version of the Nokia 6280. The mobile phone is a slide design phone, featuring a 2.2 inch (320x240 pixels), 262,144 color TFT screen, and two cameras: one at the rear being a 2MP camera (complete with 8x digital zoom and flash) and a front camera for video calling only. The phone can record .3gp video in 640x480 resolution, while it can play back both 3GP and MP4 videos. It has 6 MB of built-in memory and the option to expand up to 2 GB via the use of a miniSD card. The 6288 is able to be used on TriBand GSM (900/1800/1900 MHz) and WCDMA (2100 MHz). It also features PTT support, IM and email clients. The phone has Bluetooth 2 (with A2DP/AVRCP profile support), infrared and USB connections. The Phone comes in two colours, Black and White. The phone also has Java built into it and supports most generic java applications as well as specific S40 version applications. The phone runs S40. In Australia, the phone is a popular one along with the Motorola RAZRs and some older Nokias. For unlocking purposes, the phone is BB5.

Nokia 6288.jpg


Network GSM 900/1800/1900

Dimensions 100 x 46 x 21 mm, 91 cc

Display 240 x 320 pixels, 262,144 colors, TFT

Ring MP3/Realtone

Vibration Yes

Memory 6 MB internal, up to 2 GB via miniSD

GPRS Class 10

Bluetooth Yes, v 2.0

Infrared Yes


Camera 2 Megapixels (with flash)

Nokia E90 Communicator Specification

Nokia E90 Communicator is a 3G smartphone made by Nokia and the latest model of the Communicator series. It was announced in February 2007 at the 3GSM show in Barcelona.

The first Nokia E90 unit was sold in an auction in Jakarta, Indonesia on May 17, 2007 for Rp. 45,000,000 (5,000 US$).Indonesia being one of the largest market share for Nokia's communicator series is cited as a reason for the unit's first launch location.


E90 starts the fifth generation of Nokia's communicators, and also introduces a new platform to Nokia's communicator line, Series 60 v3. Previous communicators have been based on either GeOS or Series 80. E90 is also the first Nokia communicator to have UMTS/HSDPA connectivity and integrated GPS. It features OSGi and eRCP, Eclipse RCP for embedded systems.

Early user-feedback and reviews highlighted a defect in the microphone of Nokia E90. Nokia initially denied the existence of the defect, but it was later acknowledged by Nokia Europe, and addressed in the Q3 earnings report released on October 18, 2007,[3] stating that the issue has now been fully resolved. Early phones sold in Belgium offered a choice of English, Dutch or Romanian but not French language.

Firmware version, released in late October 2007, added support for A-GPS, intended to enhance GPS performance in poor signal conditions, such as in city streets overshadowed by buildings. This version also upgraded the Maps application. As of June 2009 the most recent firmware version is 400.34.93.



Operating System Symbian OS v9.2 S60 Platform, 3rd Edition, Feature Pack 1

CPU ARM11 (OMAP2420 @ 330 MHz)

RAM (built in) 128 MB shared

Expandable memory Originally stated as 2GB maximum- this has now been changed to 4GB on the nokia website specifications. microSD/microSDHC hot-swappable. However, 16GB has been observed to work.

Phone Features

Messaging SMS, MMS, Email (IMAP4, POP3, SMTP), Instant Messaging

Voice Recognition Yes

Speakerphone Yes

Video calls Yes (QCIF camera)

Push to talk Yes

Vibration Yes

Call log Yes (maximum of 30 days)


GSM Yes (Quadband 850/900/1800/1900 MHz)

CDMA Yes (WCDMA 2100 MHz with simultaneous voice and packet data)

3G Yes (UMTS 2100 with HSDPA of 3.6 Mbit/s).



WLAN Yes (Wi-Fi 802.11b/g)


GPS Yes (integrated)

FM radio Yes (requires included headset)

Bluetooth Yes (v2.0 with Enhanced Data Rate & A2DP)

Infrared Yes

USB Yes (v2.0 miniUSB)

Fax No

BlackBerry Yes (with BlackBerry Connect v4.0 Software, including over the air activation)


Offline mode Yes, However Bluetooth and WiFi may be switched on independently.

Office Suite Quickoffice (Microsoft Office compatible)

Web browser WAP 2.0, xHTML, HTML (limited Adobe Flash support)

Java support Yes (MIDP 2.0, CLDC 1.1)

PDF viewer Yes (Adobe Acrobat Reader LE 1.5.0)

GPS Integration

Nokia Maps

Google Maps


Camera 3.2 megapixels (with autofocus and LED flash), video at (up to) VGA (640×480), up to 30 fps

Video player Yes (built-in Real Player)


Exterior screen TFT, 16M colors, 240×320 pixels, 2 inch

Internal screen TFT, 16.7M colors, 800×352 pixels, 4 inch


Removable battery Yes

Battery Type BP-4L, Li-Ion 1500 mAh

Stand-by time Up to 14 days

Talk time Up to 5.8 hours


Form factor Clamshell with full QWERTY keyboard

Dimensions 132 × 57 × 20 mm

Weight 210 gram

The Nokia E90 does not support fax as fax services are not included in the 3G Specifications. It does however support fax through Content Beamer application.

Supports Microsoft Exchange email via the Nokia "Mail for Exchange" software application. This program does not support folders or native HTML mail.

Since Nokia E90's web browser shares similar code-base as iPhone's Safari browser, most iPhone Web Applications are accessible through Nokia E90's browser as well.

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